LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY
A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena

The Dark Ages, A.D. 1 - 1000
Numbers show sources


Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description

1
Mediterranean?
Earthquake
Great earthquake, 'Whole world’. (1)

4
London
Coloured rain
Blood-rain for 5 hours. Rain and dust? (2)

5
Rome
Flood
All Tiber bridges broken. Rome flooded 7 days. (3)

7
River Thames, England
Flood
Many casualties. (2)

9
Italy
Aurora?
‘Three columns of fire’ rose from Alps. Sky ablaze in many places. (4)

10
Cyprus
Earthquake
A great earthquake (doubtful date). (5)

14
River Severn, Britain
Flood
Great damage. (2)

14 August 19 (c.)
Rome?
Bolide
Huge flaming ball ‘dissipated in mid-flight’. (11)

14 September 26-27
Naupontus, Pannonia
Lunar eclipse.
Drusus used eclipse to quell mutiny of legions. (10, 12)

15 March or September
North Sea coast, Europe
Gale and sea flood
Many Roman soldiers drowned in N’ly gale and storm surge. (12)

16 July (c.)
North Sea
Gales
Roman fleet scattered. Many ships lost. (12)

17
Asia Minor
Earthquake
12 cities wrecked. (7, 12)

18
London
Gale?
‘Hurricane’ destroyed Westminster. Doubtful. (2)

33
Jerusalem
Day darkness
At the Crucifixion. Not solar eclipse. (3)

33
Bithynia
Earthquake
30,000 killed in Nicaea. At the Crucifixion. (7)

36 August
China
Meteor shower in morning. (8)

39 March 13
China
Comet
Tail 30 cubits long. ’Spread like tree’. (9)

40
England
Storms
Rain, hail and 'strange lightning' ruined corn. Thunder killed many, then famine. (2)

46 July 6
Greek Islands
Volcano
A new island appeared near Thera, then sank again. (5, 10, 11)

48
England
Flood
Thames flood. ’10,000 drowned’. (2)

50 (c) November
England
Severe winter
All rivers and lakes froze from November to April.’ Unhistorical’. (2)

53
Phrygia
Earthquake
The city of Apamea overwhelmed. (12)

54 June
Rome
Comet
A bright comet seen before the death of Claudius. (13)

58
Near Cologne, Germany
Geological phenomenon
Flames shot up from the ground. Volcanic? Peat bog combustion? (12, 16)

60
France, Britain
Sea floods
Great storm floods. (2)

62 or 63 February 5
Campania, Italy
Earthquake
Pompeii and Herculaneum. Much damage. (7, 11, 12)

65 June 4
China
Comet
37 degrees long. (9, 13)

66
Campania, Italy
Tornado?
Almost reached Rome . Houses destroyed. (12)

66 (c.)
Albania
Blood-rain
‘It rained so much blood...that rivers ran blood’. (5)

66 January 25
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion passage. (14)

67
England
Gale?
'Hurricane' killed many, 15,000 houses fell. (2)

68
England
Island formed
Isle of Wight separated from mainland. Sea flood or earthquake! (2)

68
Fall, inundation
Near East
Blood-rain and rivers of blood in ‘Alban territories”; sea retreated from Egypt and flooded Lycia. (4)

68-69
Britain
Rain & droughts
Famine lasted 2 years. Many 1,000s died. (2)

69 April 20 (c.)
Rome
Flood
Great Tiber flood. Many persons drowned. (5)

77 or 78
Cyprus
Earthquake
Three cities overwhelmed. (7)

79 April
Rome
Comet
A comet before the death of Vespasian. (17)

79 August 24
Vesuvius, Campania, Italy
Volcano
Pompeii and Herculaneum overwhelmed by Vesuvius. Vesuvius’ cone 'collapsed' See
here. (18, 99)

80
Scotland
Aurora
'A burning fire' in the sky at night. Also a ship in the sky. (19, 20, 96)

89
England?
Coloured rain
Blood-rain for 3 days. (2)

96
Greece
Solar obscuration
Sun dimmed by a rainbow-like ‘wreath’. Year uncertain. (21, 22, 23)

96 September
England
Storm & earthquake
Ground flames, Cornwall; Essex sea flood. ‘Mythical’. (2)

102 January 7
China
Comet
Greenish-white, 30 cubits long. (9, 13)

107
Britain
Rain
Heavy for 9 months. Then famine. (2)


115
Syria
Earthquake
City of Antioch destroyed, 1,000s killed, Emperor Trajan injured. (4)

121
Bavaria
Earthquake
A great earthquake. (5)

128
China
Comet
A comet stretched across the sky. (13)

130
Britain?
Hail
Stones 12 inches diameter. (2)

132
Scotland
Earthquake
Men and cattle swallowed up. (50)

133 February 8
China
Comet
A comet with a tail 75 degrees long. (13)

134
England
Severe winter
Thames frozen 2 months. (2)

139
England
Drought?
Thames dried up 2 days. Cause not stated. (2)

141 March 2
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion passage. (9, 14)

150 (c.)
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Cyzicus and other cities ruined. A mountain burst and flooded land with salt water. (4)

153
England
Cold
A three-month frost. Thames froze. (2)

173
England
Cold
A three-month frost. (2)

178 September
China
Comet
Reddish comet, 60 cubits long. (9)

185 December 7
China
Supernova?
Star large as 'half a mat' in Centaurus. (24)

186 (c.)
Lake Taupo, New Zealand
Volcano
Taupo erupted 30 cubic km.of rock and ash; cloud 50 km. high. Area 160 km. across covered in 7 minutes. (25)

188
China
Sunspot
'A black vapour' in Sun. Large as a melon. (36)

192 October
China
Comet
White comet, 100 cubits long. (9, 13)

194
Italy
Aurora
'The sky was on fire' at midnight. Year may be 196. (4, 26)

200
Sardinia
Fall
Rain of frogs. Ground covered. (27)

202
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
'Huge fire blazed up’. ‘ Bellowings’. (4)

214
England
Flood
River Trent overflowed 20 miles each side. Many drowned. (2)

217 August 23
Rome
Lightning
Colosseum struck by lightning and burned. (4)

218 April 6
China and Rome
Halley's Comet
Perihelion date.’ Fearful star’. (14)

220
England
Severe winter
Frost for five months. (2)

224 July
England?
Dark day
A 'very dark day’. Not an eclipse. (2)

230 (c)
London
Aurorae?
Armies fought in the sky.’ ‘Imaginary’. (2)

230
England
Severe winter.
Thames frozen 5 weeks. Year may be 250. (2)

233
Scotland
Rain
Rain for 7 months. Famine followed. (2)

234
Canterbury, England
Gale?
Storm blew down 200 houses. (2)

245
Lincolnshire,
England
Sea flood
1,000s of acres lost permanently to the sea. (2)

249
England
Coloured rain: aurora or comet?
Blood rains in many places; 'bloody sword' after sunset 3 nights. Lycosthenes records a comet this year. (2)

250
England
Severe winter
Thames frozen 9 weeks. Year 250 to 252. (2)

252
Mt. Etna, Sicily
Volcano
9 day eruption, first for 200 years. Catania menaced by lava. (28)

252 March 25
China
Comet
White comet, 60 cubits long.

253
London
Gale
900 houses blown down. (2)

253 December
China
Comet
Tail 50 cubits long. Visible 190 days. (9)

262
Mediterranean
Earthquake
Rome, Libya and Asia Minor. Many cities inundated by the sea. Dark days. Year doubtful. (7)

264
England?
Hail
Stones over 1 lb. (2)

283
Persia
Lightning
Roman emperor M. Aurelis Carus killed. (29)

287 September
China
Comet
Tail 100 cubits long. (9)

291
England
Cold
Most rivers froze 6 weeks. (2)

295 April 7
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion passage. Seen 7 weeks. (14)

302 May
China
Comet
Seen in the daytime. (9)

314 c.)
Cyprus
Drought
Cyprus ’36 years without rain’. (5)

324
England
Coloured rain
Rain of blood for 6 hours in Somerset. (2)

325
Campania, Italy
Earthquake
12 towns destroyed round Naples. (7)

329
Britain
Severe winter
Most rivers froze 6 weeks. Deep snow, Wales. (2)

334
Antioch, Syria
Meteor?
'Star' poured out 'smoke' for 3 hours during the day. (30, 32)

340
Asia Minor
Earthquake
'All through the East’. 2 years of shocks. (7)

344
Mediterranean
Earthquake
Shocks in Rhodes, Dyrrachium, Campania and Rome. Lasted 3 days in Rome. Year uncertain. (7)

346
Germany
Rain
20 days incessant rain. (2)

346
Britain
Parhelia?
Five suns at ‘a great distance from one another’. (33)

349
England
Gale
420 houses fell , Carlisle. Many killed. (2)

351 May 7
Jerusalem
Halo complex?
A cross in the sky. (34)

352
Scotland?
Aurora?
'Fiery swords' at night became a huge flame ’in the furthest parts of Albion’. (20)

352
China
Sunspot
'3-legged crow' on Sun. Seen 5 days. (35)

353
Cheshire, England
Flood
Drowned 5,000 persons and many cattle. (2)

357 January 10
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of a hen’s egg. (37)

358 August 24
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Macedonia and Bithynia suffered severely. Preceded by two hours of darkness. (7, 38, 39)

359
Scotland
Cold
Severe frost for 14 weeks. (2)

359
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of an egg. (83)

362 December 2
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Nicomedia and Nicaea overthrown. (5, 7)

363
Jerusalem
Ball lightning?
Men reconstructing Temple burnt to death by ‘fireballs’. (34, 39)

364 June 16
Britain
Solar eclipse
‘The earliest eclipse seen from the British Isles’. (40)

365 July 22
Mediterranean
Earthquake
Roman world shaken by great earthquake. Tsunami flooded Alexandria. (39)

367 July 2
Constantinople
Hail
Stones the size of a man’s hand. Many persons killed. (5)

368 October 11
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Nicaea destroyed. (5)

370
Constantinople
Hail
Huge hailstones killed many persons and animals. (42)

372
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of a plum. (83)

373
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of an egg. (83)

374 February 13
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion passage. (14)

388
China
Sunspots
Two black spots the size of plums. (83)

389
Unknown
Supernova? Comet?
New star as bright as Venus for 3 weeks. (44)

390 August 22
China
Comet
White comet. Tail 100 cubits. (9)

393
Europe?
Anomalous phenomenon
'Bright globes' at night merged into a ‘sword’. ‘ Time of Theodosius’. Possibly comet of 390. (45, 94, 100)

393
Egypt
Flood
Great Nile flood ‘threatened ruin to Alexandria’. (5)

394 September
Europe
Earthquakes
Throughout Europe. To November. (7)

394 September 5
Asia Minor?
Day darkness
'Night rather than day’. Not an eclipse. (30, 32)

395 September
Europe
Earthquakes
Throughout Europe. To January 396. (7)

396
Constantinople
Earthquake
Violent shocks for several days. Sky seemed on fire at time. (7, 100)

400 (c.)
Europe
Aurora
'Columns in the sky' for 3 days. ’Fire burned behind a cloud’. (5, 47)

400
China
Comet
Over 30 cubits long. (9)

401
Asia Minor
Cold
Black Sea froze over. ‘Mountains of ice’ passed Constantinople. (5)

410 August (c.)
Rome
Day darkness
Gloom so that stars appeared in daytime. Probably not an eclipse. (10, 31)

415 June 24
China
Comets
Two comets near Serpens. (9)

416
Java
Volcano
Volcano Kapi exploded and created Sunda Straits. Javanese legend. (48)

418 July 19
Comet
Comet seen near Sun during eclipse: later seen in China. Tail became 100 cubits long in Sept. (31)

423 February
China
Comet
A bright comet. (9)

424
Cornwall. England
Earthquake
'Great losses, many killed’. Must be doubtful. (2)

427
Constantinople
Earthquake.
57 towers thrown down. Year may be 447. (7)

436
Ireland
Snow
A huge snow. (2)

446
Mediterranean?
Earthquake
'Earthquake lasting 6 months’. Most of the civilised world’. (7)

447?
Wales
Day darkness
'Days as dark as night’. Year may be 444. (51)

450 August 25
Constantinople
Day darkness
Sky dark until evening. Not an eclipse. (10)

451 April 3
France
Aurora
Red streamers after sunset. (47)

451 July 4
China and Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. (14)

452
Thrace
Meteorites?
Three large stones fell. ’Doubtful’. (52)

454
Central Europe
Aurora
'Burning pikes' in sky. (5, 26)

457
Britain
Comet? Aurora?
‘Star’ and fiery sword’. 2 rays reached toward France and Ireland. (5)

459
Britain
Hail
Stones over 3 inches diameter killed many people and cattle. Most parts of Britain. (2)

461
France
Coloured rain
Rain of blood at Tolouse. (5)

466
Unknown
Comet??
Trumpet-shaped cloud. Seen 40 days. (30, 32)

466
Britain
Miasma
Famine. “Pestiferous smell in the air killed...man and beast”. (5)

467 (c)
France
Anthelion?
Another sun after sunset. (10)

469
Asia Minor
Floods
4 days’ rain overwhelmed many towns in Bythinia. (5)

470
Scotland
Rain
10 months' rain. (2)

472 November 5
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Great eruption; 'whole of Europe covered with a fine dust’. Ashes said to have fallen at Constantinople. (16)

474
Britain
Cold
4 months' frost . Great snow. (2)

476
I-hsi, China
Meteorites?
'Thundering chariots' fell and scorched ground. ‘Like granite’. (53)

484
Europe
Drought
All springs and rivers dried up. “Men died in heaps’. (5)

494
Syria & Asia Minor
Earthquake
Laodicea, Hierapolis, Tripolis and Agathicus . These cities 'overwhelmed’. (7)

499
China
Sunspots
Three black spots the size of peaches. (83)

500 October 23
Asia Minor?
Day darkness
Sun obscured to 8th hour. Not an eclipse. (10)

508
Britain
Cold
Rivers frozen 2 months. Uncertain year. (2)

512 July 8
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Severe. Nuee ardentes. (54)

518
Hungary
Earthquake
Boiling water came from 12-foot wide fissures. Great damage. (7)

518 June 25
China
Ball lightning?
'Red object' fell into furnace. Exploded and burned houses.

520
Cardigan Bay, Wales
Subsidence
Land of Cantref y Gwaelod drowned. (55)

523 (c.)
Kent, England
Aurorae? and fall
'Dragons fighting in the air’. Rain of wheat and blood in Kent. (2)

526
England?
Volcanic dust?
'A dry fog’. (2)

526
Antioch
Tornado?
Trees felled in Daphne suburb. (56)

526 May 20
Antioch, Syria
Earthquake
City wrecked, 250,000 killed. (5)

528 November 29
Antioch, Syria
Earthquake
Rebuilt buildings thrown down. Many shocks for 1 hour. (5, 7)

530 November 15
China and Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. (57)

532 November
Unknown
Meteor shower
‘A great fall of stars.’ (109)

536
Vesuvius, Italy
Volcano
Vesuvius ‘rumbled’. No eruption. (56)

536
Mesopotamia: Italy
Obscuration
Sun dimmed for 18 months. Fruits did not ripen. (58)

536
Asia Minor
Earthquake
‘Multitudes swallowed’ at Pompeiopolis. ‘Blood rained from the clouds’. (5)

536 March 24
Constantinople
Obscuration
Sun and Moon darkened . Till June 24, 537. (59)

536 December
China
Fall
Yellow dust fell. ’Like snow’. (60)

537 February 1
China
Fall
Rain of dust or ash. (60)

537 July & August
Quingzou, China
Summer snow
Frost in July; snow in August. Crops ruined. (60)

539
Europe
Comet
‘Swordfish’ comet seen 40 days. (56)

540
China
Tornadoes
‘Dragons’ broke trees. (61)

541
France
Aurora?
'Comet' so vast that sky seemed on fire. ‘Real blood' fell from clouds. (2)

542
Scotland
Obscuration
Sun appeared like blood at noon. Sky full of stars for 2 days. (62)

543 September 6
Mediterranean?
Earthquake
'Throughout the known world’. City of Cyzicus half destroyed. (7)

545
Thrace
Tsunami
Wave drowned many. (30, 32)

548
France
Severe winter
Deep snow; mountain streams frozen. (63)

552
Greece
Earthquake
Nauupacta, Petra, Corona, etc., ruined. Seismic sea waves. (5, 7, 56)

554
Europe
Cold
Severe winter. (5)

555
Europe
Aurora
‘Spears seen in the air”. (2, 5)

555 August 15
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Constantinople, Berytus and extending to Egypt. Berytus ruined. Year uncertain. (7, 30, 32)

557 December 14
Mediterranean
Earthquake
Constantinople, Antioch, Rome, etc. Many shocks for 10 days. (5, 7)

567 (c)
Italy
Aurora
'Battle lines of fire’:
Acies igneae. (47)

567
Asia Minor?
Aurora? Fall
“Flame of fire’ in sky near the North Pole. ‘Dust or ashes’ fell. (64)


567
Europe
Obscuration
‘Stars were visible during the day’. (38)

568 August 3
China
Comet
White; tail 40 cubits long. Like a melon. (9)

569
Italy
Aurora
'Fiery ranks' in the sky. ‘ Blood’ came out. (65)

570
Bender, Arabia
Meteorites
Many stones fell. (67)

570
Antioch
Earthquake
Many houses demolished. Fire ran through the sky. (5)

575 September
France
Aurora
The sky burned. (65)

577 November 11
France?
Lunar event?
'A light on the Moon’. (63)

578
France
Aurora
20 rays of light in the N. (63)

579
China
Sunspot
Black colour as large as hen's egg on Sun. Seen 4 days. (35)

580
Europe
Meteors?
'Fiery meteors' traversed sky. (2)

580
Louraine, Bordeaux, Orleans, France
Exploding meteor
Great light in sky moving E before dawn, then explosion heard 50 miles away. ’Supernatural fire' burned Orleans and Bordeaux villages. (65)

580 (c.)
Aeolian Islands
Volcano
Lipari erupted. Explosions and lava. (101)

580 before September
France
Floods
Loire, Allier, Rhone flooded after 12 days’ rain. (63)

581
France
Tornado?
Wind devastated area ‘some mile’ across. Houses and trees fell. (63)

582
Paris, France
Coloured rain
Shower of blood. (63)

582 January l5
France & China
Comet
‘Enormous beam of light’ in W. after sunset. (63)

582 March 29
Soissons, France
Aurora
‘Whole sky seemed to catch fire’. (63)

583 January 31
Tours, France
Ball lightning?
Fireball in overcast sky with rain. (63)

584
France
Aurora
‘Multitude of rays’ in N. sky at midnight. Auroral corona. (63)

584 December
France?
Meteor
Large fireball. Equal to daylight. (67)

585
France?
Aurora
Rays of light for 2 nights. Luminous cloud. (63)

585 October 23
France?
Bolide
Large fireball, then detonation. (67)

586
Constantinople
Hail
Men killed by stones.

587
France
Tornadoes?
‘Snakes’ dropped from the clouds. A village ‘vanished’. (63)


587 January 1
France
Bolide
Large fireball, then detonation. (67)


588 or 559 September and October
Italy
Floods
All rivers and lakes of Italy overflowed, ‘infinite number’ drowned. (5)

588 October 31
Antioch
Earthquake
60,000 killed

589
Durham, England
Storm flood
Sea swept away villages, many drowned. ’Probably mythical’. (2)

590
Italy
Aurora
Streamers in N., ’bloody clouds’. (5)

590
France
Meteors?
Fiery globes traversed sky at night on a ‘number of occasions’. (63)

592 January 10
England
Drought
Until September. (2)

594 July 23
Ireland
Solar eclipse
‘First genuine eclipse recorded in British Isles’. (10)

596
England
Aurora?
Armies in the sky. ‘Legendary’. (2)

599 January 30
Arabia
Meteor shower
Stars flew against one another. ’Like a swarm of locusts’. (69)

600
Japan
Earthquake
Shook whole empire. (7)

600 (c.)
Syria
Comet
“A sign resembling a spear’ in the S.W. (49)

602
Antioch, Syria
Earthquake
60,000 killed. (70)

604
Scotland
Severe winter
4 months' frost. Also in England. (2, 5)

607 March 20
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Seen 100 days. (14)

608
Mourne, Ireland
Lightning
Army of Ulidia 'struck by terrible lightning’. Year may be 610. (2)

615 August
Italy
Earthquake
Throughout Italy. Then pestilence. (7)

616 January 14
China
Meteorites
Several stones fell. 10 soldiers killed. (53)

621
Japan
Obscuration
Sun lost brightness. Also Moon. (10)

626 October
Syria
Obscuration
Half the light of the Sun disappeared. Darkness from October to June. (10, 38)

632 January 22
Mecca, Arabia
Solar eclipse
Son of Muhammad died. Annular. (71)

633 (c.)
Constantinople
Aurora?
'Bloody spear' and 'very clear light' at night. (65)

634
Ulster, Ireland
Snow
Great snow killed many. Country of Berg. ((2)

650
Wales
Comet?
'Rising of a star’. (51)

652 summer
Constantinople
Fall
‘Ashes’ and ‘fire’ fell. (5)

660 summer
Scotland
Aurora?
The sky burned. (107)

661
London
Ball lightning?
Globe of fire fell on St. Paul's and burnt roof. ‘ Mythical’. (2)

671
Germany?
Storm
Tempest with ‘great slaughter of people and cattle’. (5)

674 March 28
England
Aurora
'Rainbow' of blood tint at night. (2, 72)

676 July 7
China
Comet
Tail 30 cubits long. (9)

677
Glasgow, Scotland
Earthquake
'Destroyed many people and houses’. (50)

678 August
England
Comet
Shone every morning for 3 months. (51, 73)

679 (c.)
Sussex, England
Drought
Caused 3 years' famine. St. Wilfrid's drought. (74, 106)

681 October 17
China
Comet
Tail 50 cubits long. (9)

684
Sikokf, Japan
Earthquake
5,000,000 acres lost to sea. Year may be 685. (7)

684
Ireland
Cold
Lakes, rivers and sea froze. (75)

684
Britain
Coloured rain
Bloody rain fell for 7 days. Uncertain year. (2, 75)

684 September 28
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. (76)

684 December 25 (c.)
Japan, Europe
Comet
‘Shadowy star’ near Pleiades. Not Halley’s Comet. (77)

685
Ireland
Earthquake
Also a great wind. (2)

690 (685? 688? 693?)
Ireland, England
Fall
Rain of blood. (2)

690 May 28?
Wales
Lunar eclipse
‘First lunar eclipse recorded in Britain’. (78)

693
Ireland
Rain flood
Leinster rivers flood 3 days and 3 nights. (2)

695
England
Severe winter
Thames froze 6 weeks. Cold in Europe. (2)

697
Scotland
Coloured rain
'It rained blood’. (2)

708
Campania, Italy
Fall
Grain, oil and beans fell. (30, 32)

713 March 20
Antioch
Earthquake
City completely destroyed. (68)

714
Wales
Aurora?
'Nights as bright as day’. Uncertain year. (51)

715 (c.)
Ireland
Fall
Showers of honey, silver and blood in separate places. (72, 75)

715 June 21
Britain
Aurora?
Armies and monsters in fiery sky, then storm 'Mythical’. (2)

718 July 15
Constantinople
Hailstorm??
'Hailstorm mixed with fire' burnt Saracen ships. May refer to use of “Greek fire’ in war. (2)

720
Wales
Heat
Very hot summer. Year 721? (2)

727
Reims, France
Aurora
Burning lances in sky before daybreak. (26)

729 January
England
Comets
At sunrise and sunset. Seen 14 days. (20)

738
Scotland
Flood
400 families drowned in Glasgow. (2)

740 October 26
Asia Minor
Earthquake
Constantinople, Thrace, etc. Several cities ruined. Shocks lasted 11 months. (7)

742
Edessa
Fall
A shower of dust. (80)

743
Ireland
Mirage??
‘Ships with their crews seen in the sky’ Years also given as 748, 749. (75)

744
Germany
Fall
A fall of ashes in NW Germany. (2, 108)

744
England
Meteors
'Stars... shoot rapidly’. (73)

744 August
Obscuration
Middle East
A blood-coloured Sun and misty atmosphere for 5 or 6 days. (108)

745 January 1
Ireland, England
Aurora
'Marvellous light' in stars. ‘ Fiery strokes’. (2)

745 June
Syria
Aurora?
3 pillars of fire in sky. (65)

746
Ireland
Aurora?
'Dragons' seen in the sky. (2)

746 January 8
Syria and Palestine
Earthquake
Great damage and many killed round Jerusalem. (7)

755 November 23
England
Lunar eclipse and occultation
Jupiter occulted by eclipsed Moon, 7.30 pm. Only record of such occultation. (31)

759
England
Lightning?
Doncaster burnt. Fire from heaven. (2)

760 June 11
China
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Like a great beam. (14)

761
England
Cold
A severe winter. (73)

763
Vienna, Austria
Heat
Hot summer. Springs dried up. (44)

763 December 14
Europe
Severe winter
Black Sea frozen; snow 30 feet deep. From Dec. 14, 763 to Mar. 16, 764. (44, 79)

765
England, Ireland
Aurora
'Fiery strokes' in the air. (2)

766-770
Middle or Near East
Aurora
Red, green and yellow beams in the N. At harvest time. (65)

770 June 15
China
Comet
White comet 30 cubits long. (9)

773
England
Halo phenomenon?
Red cross in sky after sunset. Year may be 774 or 776. (73)

773 January 17
China
Comet
Tail extended across sky. (9)

778 August 15
France
Earthquake, storm
Great storm, earthquake and darkness at the death of Roland. (81)

782 August 2
Cluain Bronaig, Ireland
Tornado?
Monastery destroyed by 'most mighty wind’. Thunder and lightning. (75)

793
Northumbria, England
Tornadoes?
Whirlwinds and lightnings. ‘ Fiery dragons' in the air. (73)

794
Alexandria, Egypt
Earthquake
Pharos (lighthouse) fell. One of 7 Wonders of World. (7)

796
England?
Parhelia?
'Small globes' about Sun. (2)

797 (c)
Constantinople
Obscuration
Sun darkened for 17 days. Not an eclipse. (10)

798
Ireland
Snow
Men and animals died. (2)

800 July 6 and 9
Metz, France
Summer cold
'Freezes' on both days. (30, 32)

800 December 24
England
Gale
Great W. or S.W. wind. Cities destroyed. (2)

801 April 30
France, Germany, Italy
Earthquake
Many buildings thrown down in Italy. Shocks possibly not simultaneous. (7)

802 April 13
Switzerland
Earthquake
Throughout Switzerland. Then pestilence. (7)

804 March 17
Corco-Baiscim, Ireland
Tornado?
Thunder, wind and lightning, ‘1010 men killed’. (75)

806 June 4
Trier, Germany
Lunar halo?
Cross about the Moon, also in
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. Near dawn. (30, 32, 73)

806 August 30
Trier, Germany
Solar halo
Also in
Anglo-Saxon Chronicle. 'Wonderful circle’. (30, 32, 73)

807 March 15
Germany
Sunspot
Black spot on Sun, visible 8 days. (82)

810
Aachen, Germany
Meteor
Bright sphere sped from E. to W.; seen by Charlemagne. Charlemagne injured when his horse threw him. (84)

811
St. Andrews, Scotland
Earthquake
Most of town destroyed, 1,400 killed. (50)

813 August 4
Unknown
Comet
A comet ‘like two moons joined together’ separated and took different forms. (109)

814 (before?)
France
Sunspot
Black spot on Sun for 7 days. (82)

817 February 5
Paris
Lunar eclipse and comet
Comet seen during eclipse. Tail like a sword. (10, 49)

821
France, Germany
Cold
Great rivers frozen 30 days. (44, 102)

821
Narni, Italy
Meteorites
Many stones fell. Year also given as 921. (85)

821 September 22
Vienna, Austria
Snow
Lasted till Apr. 12, 822. (30, 32)

823
Saxony
Meteorites
Many small stones fell. (67, 70)

823
Germany
Earthquake
Lakes changed form. With falling stars. (7)

823
Germany
Meteor??
’Shower of fire...burnt up whole villages’. (80)

824 June 21 (c.)
Autun, Burgundy
Ice fall
Ice mass 15 feet by 7 feet by 2 feet fell in a tempest. (30, 32, 102)

827
England
Cold
Thames frozen 9 weeks. (2)

827 December 5
Lausanne, France
Aurora
Great light in E. before dawn. (65)

829
Europe
Cold
Severe winter. Ice on the Nile. (103)

835
Antioch
Earthquake
Antioch destroyed. ‘ Lasted 40 days’. (104)

837
China
Sunspot
Black spot the size of an egg on Sun. (83)

837 February 6
China and Europe
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. Tail in two branches on April 10. 80 cubits long, April 14. 6,000,000 km. from Earth on April. 11. (91)

838 November 10
China
Comet
Great comet; tail stretched across sky on Nov. 21. (9)

840
Arabia
Sunspot
Observed by Al-Kindi. (82)

840 March and April
Syria
Aurora
Red 'fire' in N. sky at night. ‘ Short streaks of light' seen. (65)

840 May 5
Germany
Total eclipse
Louis le Debonnaire 'frightened to death’. Louis died June 20. (31, 41)

840 May 28
Unknown
Sunspots
‘Observed from May 28 to August 26’. (83)

840 September 24
Syria
Aurora
'Fiery cloud' in N. at night. (65)

841 July 28
Germany
Halo complex
Three circles in sky; smallest round Sun. Two haloes and parhelic circle? (30, 32)

842 October 24
France
Earthquake
'Almost all the north of Gaul’. Subterranean noise for 7 days. (7)

847
Slaine, Ireland
Tornado?
Cross on green lifted, broken and carried off. (72, 75)

847 November 24
Middle East
Earthquake
Damascus badly damaged, 50,000 killed. (104)

852 March
China
Comet
A bright comet.

852 July
Tabaristan, Iran
Meteorite
Large white stone fell. May be August. (52)

855 November 23
Ireland
Cold
Great ice and frost till Jan. 7. Rivers and lakes froze. Uncertain year. (2, 72, 75)

856
Ireland
Gale
Very great wind. Woods felled. (2)

856 December
Middle East
Earthquake
Great shock affected Egypt, Yemen, Syria, Iran, etc. 45,000 buried in Tunis. Stones fell in Egypt. (104)

858 December 25
Mayence, Germany
Earthquake
Many and violent shocks by night & day. (7)

859 December
Syria
Earthquake
Over 1,500 houses thrown down at Antioch. Part of mountain fell into sea. (68)

859 winter
Europe
Severe winter
Over nearly all Europe. 859-60. (7)

860
Europe, Syria, Persia
Earthquake
'Earth upturning' in Holland. One of Rhine mouths closed. (7)

860
Mediterranean
Cold
Ionian Sea frozen, also Adriatic. (87, 96)

861 December 11
Amiens, France
Aurora
'Bloody ranks of the sky’. Sizzling sound. (65)

863
Erivan, Armenia
Earthquake
Immense damage. Many killed. (7)

867 March 4
Mt. Tsurimi, Japan
Volcano
Eruption created Beppu hot springs. (18)

869
France
Floods
Famine followed. Cannibalism. (30, 32)

869 July 9
Japan
Earthquake
Earthquake and seismic sea wave in northern Honshu; 1,000 killed.

870
Worms, Germany
Heat
Summer heat so intense that reapers fell dead. (44)

872 June 21
Dar-i-Shahr, Iran
Earthquakes
2 shocks on successive days wrecked town, 20,000 killed. (88)

873 (c)
Brescia, Italy
Coloured rain
Blood-rain for 3 nights. (65)

873 July 28
Iran
Annular solar eclipse
Annular phase described by al-Biruni. (10)

875 July 3
Saxony
Cloudburst
Aschenbrunn washed away with inhabitants.’ Remote from all water’. (79)

878
Louth, Ireland
Fall
'Lumps of gore and blood' . Wind and lightning. (2, 72, 75)

888 November 11
Ireland
Gale
Great wind prostrated many trees and woods. Year also given as 892. (72, 75)

890 January 1
Ireland
Aurora
Heavens on fire at night. Year may be 889. (2)

891 May 12
China
Comet
Tail 100 cubits long. (9)

892 or 897
Ahmed-Abad, Mesopotamia
Meteorite?
Stone-fall. (52, 67)

893 December 28
Armenia
Earthquake
City of Dvin destroyed; 30,000 killed.

893 (c)
Persia
Obscuration
Sun failed for 3 hours. Not an eclipse. (10)

893 May 6
China
Comet
Tail 200 cubits long. (9)

894
Erivan, Armenia
Earthquake
20,000 killed. (7)

896
Ireland
Fall?
Bread failed and vermin fell from sky. Had '2 teeth and ate everything up’. (51)

896
China
Comets
Three comets (one large and two small) moved together for 3 days. (109)

896
York, England
Hail
Stones like duck eggs. (2)

900
Netherlands?
Meteor shower.
’Stars’ flowed from sky. Then tempests. (89)

901 October 26
Egypt
Sky filled with shooting stars. Year may be 902.

902 February 11
China
Comet?
Slow-moving ‘star like a peach’ seen over a year. (36)

902 October
Spain
Meteor shower
'Stars' fell like rain. Not same as 900. (89)

905 May 23
China
Comet
Extended across heavens. (7)

908
England
Cold
Rivers frozen 2 months. (96)

909 May 6
Ireland
Parhelia
Two suns ran together. (2, 72)

912
Scotland
Aurora
4 'rainbows' and fiery torches. (2)

912 July 19
Japan
Halley's Comet
Perihelion. (57)

917
Ireland
Severe winter
Great snow. Lakes frozen. (2)

919
Russia
Aurora
Burning sky and fiery pillars in winter. Seen from Russia to Greece. (47)

921
Narni, Italy
Meteorites
Many stones fell, largest into river. Year also given as 821. (53)

922 May 11
Bulgaria
Aurora
Cloud like fire. ‘ Noises and voices’. (47)

923
London
Cold
Thames frozen 13 weeks. (96)

925 September 21
Egypt
Bolide?
Red fireball. Serpentine tail. (67)

926
England
Aurora
'Fiery lights' in N. sky. Year may be 927. (73)

927
Byzantium
Cold
Frost lasted 120 days. (2)

930 (c)
Eldgja, Iceland
Volcano
Fissure 30 km. long. (105)

930
Bagdad
Sandstorm
Immense quantities of sand fell from a red cloud. (80)

934
Portugal
Obscuration
Sun lost light for months. Suddenly restored. (38)

934
Germany and Ireland
Obscuration
The Sun appeared red for a day. (108)

934
Ireland
Lightning?
'Celestial fire' burnt Connaught mountains. Lakes and rivers dried up. (2)

935
France
Aurora
'Armies in the sky’. (47)

936
Belgium
Obscuration
Sun turned blood-red in clear sky. Probably refers to the year 934. (10, 32, 108)

937
Saxony
Volcano??
Mountain ‘vomited forth flames’.

938
Ireland
Obscuration
Sun like blood 1½ days. Probably refers to the year 934. (72, 93, 108)

941
Ireland
Cold
Lakes and rivers froze. (2)

943 November 5
China
Comet
‘Broom star’ in Virgo. (9)

944
England
Gale
1,500 London houses fell . Whole of England. (96)

945 October 25
Ireland
Aurora
'Two fiery columns' illuminated world. (2, 72, 75)

948
England
Drought
No rain for 3 years. ‘Very doubtful’. (2)

949 (c)
Italy
Obscuration
Sun became like blood, 948-950. Possibly refers to the year 934. (10, 108)

950
France, Germany
Earthquakes. Many shocks. Year uncertain. (7)

950 (c.)
Hadramut, Yemen
Volcano
Eruption in 10th century, still active in 1813. (95)

951
England
Thunderstorm
Southampton destroyed. Lasted 4 days. (2)

951 or 952
Augsburg, Germany
Meteorites?
A stone-fall. (67)

956 June
France
Aurora?
Headless dragon in sky. Tornado? (30, 32)

957 (c)
Iran
Earthquake
Great shock in Shahr-Rey. Earth clefts. (88)

958 (c)
Iran
Earthquakes
Many shocks resumed. 100s killed. (88)

963 May 13
Egypt
Earthquake
Storm, earthquake and a red Sun.

960 (c)
Ireland
Tornado?? Meteor??
'Arrow of fire' killed 1100 men and beasts. Near Dublin. (2, 75)

968 December 22
Constantinople
Solar eclipse
'Dim and feeble glow' round eclipsing Moon. Earliest corona record? (36)

974 November 1
Europe
Severe winter
Until March 11, 975. (2)

975 August 3
England, China
Comet
40 cubits long. (9, 73)

978 April 14
England
Aurora
Blood-red cloud and coloured rays at night. (93)

979 October 28
England
Aurora
'Bloody cloud' at night. Coloured beams. (73)

982
Greece
Aurora
Armies in the sky. (47)

986
Ireland
Gale
Great and unusual wind. Many buildings fell. (75)

987 December 22
England
Cold
Frost began. Lasted 120 days. (79)

988 (c)
Byzantium
Aurora
Fiery pillars in N. Several nights. (65)

989 August 2
Europe, China
Halley's Comet.
Perihelion. (36, 57)

991 December 25
Ireland
Aurora
'Burning hand' in sky at night. (2, 75)

995 July
Europe
Summer cold
Severe frost and ice.

998
England
Cold
Thames frozen 5 weeks. ‘Unhistorical’. (96)

998
Germany
Meteorites
Two large stones fell at Magdeburg. (67, 97)

1000
Cumberland, England
Earthquake
Men, cattle and houses swallowed up. (50)

1000 March 29
Europe
Earthquake
No particular place specified. Reported by most chronicles. (7)

1000 June 28 (c.)
Iceland
Volcano
Fissure eruption. Subterranean fires broke out in Olfus. (98)