LANDMARKS OF WORLD HISTORY

A Chronology of Remarkable Natural Phenomena
20th Century 1901-1910
Numbers show sources
Date
Location
Phenomenon
Description

1901 January 6
Scotland
Daylight meteor
A meteor fireball the size of a ‘bowling ball’ with a glowing red tail just after noon, Glasgow. (25)

1901 January 27
Europe
Gale
Storm centred over north of Scotland, felt in southern France; force 11 gusts damaged trees and buildings. (67)

1901 February 16
Michigan, USA
Fall
Brown dust fell on a calm day, Pawpaw. (37)

1901 February 17 - 18
Europe
Snow
Intense cold in southern Europe, with widespread blizzards. (115)

1901 February 21
Edinburgh
Nova
Dr. T. Anderson discovers a magnitude 2.7 nova in Perseus. The nova was dimmer than mag. 11 on Feb. 19. (5)

1901 February 28
-
Planetary phenomenon
P. B. Molesworth observes a dark spot on Jupiter which became the South Tropical Disturbance. (21)

1901 March 10
Italy
Falls
Blood-red sky and a ‘lurid cloud’ over Palermo, Sicily; red rain fell; showers of sand at Naples. (3, 54)

1901 March 29
British Isles
Snow
Heavy snow in Scotland, Wales and N. England; up to 3 feet deep on level ground. (7)

1901 April 12
-
Comet
‘Great Comet of 1901’; two tails, one 10 degrees long. (113)

1901 May 7
Borneo
Comet
Comet 1901 I very bright with two tails 35 degrees apart. Perihelion April 24. (69)

1901 May 18
Mauritius
Eclipse and rainbow
Rainbow formed by corona light during total solar eclipse. (9, 13)

1901 May 22
Ouralsk
Ball lightning
‘Dazzling’ fireball during storm killed a girl and wrecked an apartment. (34)

1901 June
New Mexico, USA
Cave system
J. White discovered the Carlsbad Caverns. (48)

1901 June ll
Sonora, Mexico
Meteor impact?
A daylight meteor illuminated the sky from Tucson, Arizona; it ‘struck the earth 40 miles from Altar’. A ‘terrific shock’ felt there. (117)


1901 June 27 (c.)
South Carolina, USA
Fall
Hundreds of small fish fell in heavy rain at Tillers Ferry. (18)

1901 June 28
Zutphen, Netherlands
Rare halo
Hissink observed an elliptical solar halo; vertical axis 10.5°, horizontal 7.5°. (40)

1901 June 28 - July 4
New York, USA
Heatwave
Temperatures of 98° F. with high humidity caused many heatstroke deaths. 103° F. at Philadelphia on July 2. (68)

1901 July 21 - 22
Norway
Heat¨
Maximum temperatures of 95° F. at Oslo and Trondheim. (39)

1901 July 26
Iceland
Heat
A maximum temperature of 91° F. at Modrudalur. (39)

1901 July 31
Yugoslavia
Heat
A maximum temperature of 115.2° F. at Monstar. (39)

1901 July 31
Germany
Balloon ascent
Barson and Suring ascend to 35,433 feet in the balloon Preussen. (29)

1901 August 10
England and Scotland
Hail
Violent hailstorms in S.E. Scotland, Yorkshire and Derbyshire; 1,000s of glass panes broken near Galashiels. (7)

1901 September 18
Scotland
Earthquake
Shock centred on Inverness felt from Glasgow to Caithness; brick building collapsed in Inverness. (24)

1901 November 12
England
Gale
Over 200 drowned in shipwrecks, Channel and S.W. Approaches. (27)

1901 November 16
New Zealand
Earthquake
Mag. 7 shock caused damage in Cheviot; one person killed. (1, 30)

1901 December 12
England
Blizzard
Violent snowstorm over most of England; ‘railway traffic completely disorganised’. (7)




1902 January 15
Europe
Anticyclone
A barometer reading of 30.98 inches at Brest in the centre of an anticyclone covering western Europe. (92)

1902 January 23
England
Fall
“Rust-coloured dust’ fell at Bath and Henbury. (100)

1902 January 25
Japan
Cold
A minimum temperature of -42° F. at Asahikawa. (39)

1902 January 31
Europe
Anticyclone
A barometer reading of 31.12 inches at Aberdeen; 31.11 inches at Skudesnaes, Norway. (92)

1902 February 13
Transcaucasia
Earthquake
“Disastrous’ shock at Shemakha; town ruined, 2,000 persons killed. (70)

1902 March 11
Tennessee, United States
Tornado or squall
Lake steamer Providence overturned by a ‘tornado’; 20 persons drowned. (115)

1902 April 18
Guatemala
Earthquake
Several towns destroyed, 12,200 persons killed. Ocos flooded by seismic sea wave. Three volcanoes erupted. (65)

1902 April 25
West Indies
Volcano
First violent eruption of Mont Pelee, Martinique. See here. (28)

1902 May 1 (reported)
India
Tornado?
“Tornado devastated the City of Decca and adjoining towns’. 416 persons killed. (106)

1902 May 7
West Indies
Volcano
A nuee ardente from Soufriere, St. Vincent, killed 2,000 persons.. See here. (28, 107)

1902 May 8
West Indies
Volcano
Nuee ardente blast from Mont Pelee destroyed the town of St. Pierre; 30,000 killed. See here. (28)

1902 May 18
Texas, United States
Tornado
A tornado at Goliad killed 114 persons. (36)

1902 May 27
Devon, England
Anomalous phenomena
Devonport: sky filled with violet, yellow and green ’suns’ like ‘toy balloons’ at sunset.

1902 May 29 and 30
Arizona, United States
Whirlwinds
Fair-weather whirlwinds (dust-devils) at Phoenix damaged buildings. (47)

1902 summer
China
Hail
Hailstones of 10 pounds weight fell at Yuwu, Shansi Province. (4)

1902 June 1
Finland
Meteorite
A 45 Kg stony-iron fell at Marjalahti after detonating meteor. (44)

1902 June 11 - 14
South Africa
Snow
Severe snowstorm in Cape Colony; drifts 6 feet deep at Naauwpoort. (71)

1902 June 22
Spain
Lightning
Lightning struck a church funeral at Pineiro, Orense province, and killed 25 persons. (34)

1902 July
Island of Mull, Scotland
Iceberg
An ice fragment 50 feet long and 15 feet wide seen off the west side of the island. (55)

1902 July 15
France
Tornado?
A ‘cyclone’ blew down chimneys and trees at Chalon-sur-Saone and sank several vessels on the river. (77)

1902 July 17
Australia
Meteorite
A 25 lbs. stone fell at Mount Browne, New South Wales. (108)

1902 July 20
Baltimore
Tornado? and fall
A ‘tornado’ in a thunderstorm killed 11 persons and did much damage. Accompanied by a fall of ‘pumice’. (114)

1902 August 13 - 15
Japan
Volcano
Eruption on Tori Shima island; all 150 inhabitants killed. (72)

1902 August 22
Central Asia
Earthquake
Kashgar ruined; over 3,000 persons killed. (75)

1902 August 22
Italy
Volcano?
Mont Altomonte, Calabria, reported in eruption. (73)

1902 August 30
Minnesota, United States
Tornado
A train wrecked by a tornado at Owotanna; 7 persons killed. (16)

1902 September 12
United States
Dark day
The ‘Yacolt Burn’, a huge forest fire in Washington, caused day darkness in the Northwest. (33)

1902 September 13
Ireland
Meteorite
A stony-iron of over 9 lbs. fell at Crumlin, Co. Antrim. (35)

1902 September 21
South Africa
Gale
Over 20 vessels driven ashore in Algoa Bay by a SE’ly gale; 63 persons drowned. (15)

1902 September 25
Guam
Earthquake
180 shocks in one day; buildings destroyed. (76)

1902 September 25 - 29
Sicily
Thunderstorm floods
29.1 inches of rain fell in 5 days; a flood at Modica killed 111 persons. (7)

1902 September 29
Japan
Typhoon
A typhoon at Yokohama; a storm surge at Odawara drowned 200 persons. (74)

1902 October 25
Gatemala
Volcano
Eruption of Santa Maria began on Oct. 24; Quezaltenango in total darkness for 36 hours; heavy ash fall. (83)

1902 October 31
Northern Hemisphere
Magnetic storm
A ‘magnetic tempest’ cut telegraphic communication between America and Europe for 7 hours. (34)

1902 November 12 - 14
Australia
Dust storms
‘Mud rain’ in Tasmania on Nov. 14. Great heat and dust storms in Queensland, New South Wales, Victoria and South Australia; many ‘fireballs’ fell. (37)

1902 November 15
Kentucky, United States
Meteorite
A 13 lbs. stone fell at Bath Furnace. (44)

1902 December 16
Russian Central Asia
Earthquake
Shock destroyed Andijan, Fergana province; 2,500 persons killed. (78)




1903 January 13
South Pacific
Hurricane
Hurricane-generated waves up to 40 feet high drowned 1,000 persons in the Society Islands.

1903 January 23
United States
Earthquake
The most severe earthquake since 1886 August 31 shook Charleston, South Carolina. (79)

1903 January 28
South Africa
Heat
A maximum temperature of 125° F at Main, Tembuland, during a ‘hot wind’. (97)

1903 February 19 -27
Europe
Fall
“Sahara dust’ fell in the Canary Islands, 19th. 10 million tons of dust fell in England and Wales on the 21st. Dust fall in Belgium, Holland, Germany and Austria on the 27th. (37, 94)

1903 March 7
Central America
Volcano
A violent eruption of the Colima volcano; ash fell 100 miles distant. (109)

1903 March 22
Niagara Falls
Ice
Ice from Lake Erie diverted the Niagara River from the American to the Canadian channel; bed above the American fall became dry. (82)

1903 March 24
Somerset, England
Aurora??
A black arch with streamers was seen at Frome in the west at 1.40 pm on a fine day. (19)

1903 April 15
Shetland Isles
Tornado
A waterspout caused much shipping damage in Lerwick harbour. (50)

1903 April 19 -21
Europe
Blizzard
Snow several inches deep in Berlin after snowstorm on 19th. Copenhagen almost cut off by snow on the 20th; snow 6 feet deep. A severe snowstorm in Petrikovo, Russia, on the 21st. (81)

1903 April 29
Canada
Landslide
A 90 million ton rock avalanche fell 3,000 feet from Turtle Mountain, Alberta. Village of Frank wrecked; 76 persons killed. (101)

1903 May 26
United States
Planetary event
Lowell in Arizona observed an ‘enormous cloud’ on Mars as a projection on the terminator. (45)

1903 June 1
United States
Tornado
A tornado killed 98 persons in a cotton mill at Gainesville, Georgia. (36)

1903 June 13 - 15
London
Rain
Continuous rain at Camden Square from 1 pm on the 13th to 11.30 pm on the 15th; In 58 hours 30 minutes 3.44 inches of rain fell. It was followed by 21 days without rain. (14)

1903 June 14
United States
An hour-long hail and rainstorm in the Blue Mountains caused a flood which swept away one-third of Heppner, Oregon. 325 persons were drowned. (65)

1903 June 19
Wales
Earthquake
An earthquake near Carnarvon shook an area of 40,000 square miles. Landslides occurred on scree slopes near Snowdon. (24)

1903 June 19
Greenwich, London
Summer cold
A maximum temperature of 48.5° F., minimum 46.2° F. (94)

1903 June 26
Iowa, United States
Fall
A fall of fish, frogs, worms and plants in Monona County after two funnel clouds were seen over a lake. (110)

1903 June 29
Brazil
Meteorite
A 40 kg. stone was seen to fall near Uberaba after detonating meteor. (44)

1903 July 8
England
Noctilucent clouds
A bright display of ‘night-shining clouds’ seen from Sunderland. (11)

1903 October 22
Pakistan
Meteorites
Over 100 stones fell at Dakachi after detonating meteor; 24 recovered. (44)

1903 October 31
Northern Hemisphere
Magnetic storm
A severe magnetic storm disrupted telegraphs in Britain, Europe and America. A brilliant auroral display. (94)

1903 December 3 (reported)
Bay of Biscay
Meteor? Ball lightning?
Steamer Sophocles struck by lightning, followed by brilliant ‘meteor’, a rushing sound, and a body falling into the sea. (83)




1904 February 24
North Pacific Ocean
Anomalous phenomena
Three red objects, two round and one egg-shaped, seen beneath clouds for 2 minutes from the USS Supply. (46)

1904 May 22
Siberia
Meteorites
Many small stones fell at Barnaul after a meteor. (44)

1904 June 13
Cuba
Floods
Over 12 inches of rain fell in a 3-hour thunderstorm; 100 persons drowned in floods. (85)

1904 June 29
Russia
Tornadoes
Two tornadoes, a few kilometres apart, passed across Moscow at 60 kilometres an hour. Great property damage and several persons killed. (64)

1904 July 31
California
Lunar event?
The Lowe Observatory reported a bright hazy telescopic object on the floor of the lunar crater Plato. On Aug. 2 it was replaced by ‘a black elliptical shadow two miles in diameter’. (10)

1904 August 4
England
Heat
91° F in London; a dust storm in Lincolnshire. (96)

1904 August 9
New Zealand
Earthquake
A shock caused much building damage in Wellington. (84)

1904 August 12
United States
Meteor impact?
A strong wind and an earth shock followed a meteor explosion, Concord Station, Pennsylvania. (58)

1904 August 20
United States
Tornado
An aneroid barometer fell momentarily to 23 inches during a tornado at Minneapolis. (36)

1904 September 23
Italy
Volcano
An eruption of Vesuvius. (86)

1904 October 23
Scandinavia
Earthquake
Shocks felt in Stockholm, Oslo, Gothenburg, Jutland, Malmo and Copenhagan. A ‘great panic’ in Oslo. (87)




1905 January 7
England
Gale and floods
A NW’ly gale and very high tides caused extensive floods and property destruction on the east coast of England. (96)

1905 January 15
Norway
Landslide
A rockfall into the Loenvand Lake, Nesdal, raised a 20-foot wave which swept away ‘houses, people and cattle’. (88)

1905 January 20
Ireland
Anticyclone
A barometric pressure of 31.06 inches (105.2 kPa) recorded at Valentia Observatory. (102)

1905 January 26
South Africa
Gemstone
Discovery of the Cullinan Diamnd; uncut weight 11 1/2 pounds.

1905 January 28
Anticyclone
Cornwall, England
A barometer reading of 31.097 inches at Falmouth Observatory. (96)

1905 January 30
Canary Islands
Fall
A fall of ‘nearly impalpable’ yellow dust and a dry fog in Santa Cruz. (89)

1905 March 4
India
Earthquake
A series of shocks caused extensive damage in Lahore, Calcutta and elsewhere in northern India; ‘hundreds killed’. (65) Same as April 4?

1905 April 4
India
Earthquake
A shock affecting Kangra and Dharmsala killed over 18,000 persons. Disturbed area almost 2 million square miles. (7)

1905 April 16
England
Thunderstorm
A thunderstorm with heavy rain travelled from Kent to South Wales at over 50 miles an hour. (96)

1905 April 29
France
Earthquakes
Shocks in the Jura Valley, the Rhone Valley and the eastern Central Massif. Accompanied by violent squalls. (90)

1905 May 10
United States
Tornado
A tornado at Snyder, Oklahoma, killed 97 persons. (36)

1905 July 7
United States
Heat
A temperature of 127° F at Parker, Arizona. (105)

1905 August 5
Czechoslovakia
Heat
A temperature of 102° F (39° F) at Hurbanovo. (39)

1905 August 30
Spain
Solar eclipse
The astronomer J. Comas Sola made a partially successful attempt to film a total solar eclipse at Vinavoz. (91)

1905 September 2
United States
Meteorites
15 to 20 stones fell at Modoc, Kansas, after detonating meteor. Largest 35 pounds. (44)

1905 November 15
Northern Hemisphere
Aurora
A deep red aurora was seen from Britain, France, Germany, Austria and western America. (96)




1906
United States
Geological event
A gas blowout in the Gulf of Mexico through 7,000 feet of water. (32)

1906 February 8
Britain
Squall
A line squall travelled from the Hebrides to central France in 24 hours; much damage by wind and lightning. (111)

1906 March 17
Formosa
Earthquake
A shock killed 1,266 persons and destroyed 7,284 houses. (7)

1906 April 8
Italy
Volcano
An eruption of Vesuvius began on April 4. On April 8 a Plinian blast lasting all day sent an ash cloud 7 miles high. (28, 57)

1906 April 18
United States
Earthquake
Most of San Francisco, California, was destroyed by a magnitude 7.9 earthquake and subsequent fire. (99)

1906 April 29
Burma
Heat
A temperature of 114° F. (46° C.) at Mandalay. (39)

1906 June 27
Wales
Earthquake
A shock centred near Swansea was felt over an area of 37,800 square miles. (39)

1906 August 16
Chile
Earthquake
Two violent shock, first lasting 4 minutes, destroyed Valparaiso; 3,886 persons were killed.

1906 September 2
England
Autumn heat
96° F. (35.6° C.) recorded at Barnet, Hertfordshire, Epsom, Surrey, and Bawtry, Yorkshire. (49)

1906 September 18
Hong Kong
Hurricane
A typhoon wrecked Hong Kong and killed about 10,000 persons.

1906 October 5
United States
Tornado
A waterspout came ashore near New Orleans, damaging 200 houses. 21 persons were injured. (39)

1906 November 4
South Africa
Meteorite
A 2 lbs. stone fell at Diep River. (44)

1906 December 19
South Africa
Hail
Hens-egg sized hailstones devastated all farms between Vicksburg to Brindisi, Orange River Colony. A horse, calf and sheep were killed. (8)

1906 December 26 - 30
Europe
Snow
5 days of deep snow in Scotland, Ireland, England and Eastern Europe. (7)




1907 January 14
West Indies
A shock in Jamaica killed 1,000 persons and caused widespread damage. (99)

1907 January 17
Scotland
Earthquake
An earthquake centred near Oban damaged buildings in Kilninver and Kimelford. (24)

1907 January 23
Eastern Europe
Anticyclone
A barometer reading (reduced to sea level) of nearly 31.50 inches in the Baltic States. (116)

1907 March 14
Malacca Straits
Marine luminescence
A ‘phosphorescent wheel’ with revolving shafts 300 yards long was seen from the steamship Delta. (37)

1907 May 9
India
Meteorites
Several stones fell at Chainpur. 18 lbs. of fragments were found. (44)

1907 June 18
Durham, England
‘Cloudburst’
A downpour following a funnel cloud flooded the countryside round Blanchland, causing great damage. (7)

1907 July 22
Wales and Ireland
Hail
Hail drifts 5 feet deep in the Black Mountains, Wales; river dammed by hail near Tredrenow. Great floods in Clare, Ireland. (7)

1907 August 20 (reported)
Atlantic Ocean
Meteor impact?
A fireball fell into the sea 50 yards from the steamship Cambrian, raising a large wave. (58)

1907 September 5 (or 7)
China
Meteor impact?
A family was reportedly crushed to death in their house at Hain-p’al by the fall of a large stone meteorite. (2,58)

1907 November 25
Kent, England
Tornado
A tornado at Sholden levelled buildings, splintered trees and carried roofs half a mile. (23)

1907 end of
Switzerland
Fall
A rain of fish lasting an hour. 12 tons of fish were collected. (64)




1908 March 7
Atlantic Ocean
Hurricane
Date of the earliest observed Atlantic hurricane. (42)

1908 April 21
Arctic
Exploration
Dr. F. A. Cook claimed to have reached the North Pole. (17)

1908 April 24
United States
Tornadoes
A tornado outbreak in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama killed 291 persons. (38)

1908 April 24 - 26
Britain
Late snow
An Easter snowstorm from central Scotland to the English Channel. 1 foot of snow fell at Oxford. (51)

1908 May 1
Panama
Rainfall
2.47 inches of rain fell in 3 minutes at Porto Bello. (7)

1908 June 30
Tunguska, Siberia
Meteor impact
A fiery body exploded over the Central Siberian Forest; column of fire 1 mile wide rose 12 miles; sounds heard 600 miles away. See here. (57)

1908 June 30
Ukraine
Meteorite
A 1.9 kg. stone fell at Kagarlyk after a detonating fireball; same day as Tunguska meteor. (44)

1908 July 2
Scotland
Heat
91° F. (32.8° C.) at Dumfries. (52)

1908 September 27 - 28
India
Rain flood
15 inches of rain fell in 36 hours at Hyderabad; floods ruined city and drowned over 5,000 persons. (7)

1908 October 3
Scotland
Autumn heat
81° F. at Tillypronie (1,120 feet above sea level). (112)

1908 December 28
Sicily
Earthquake
An earthquake and a seismic sea wave wrecked the city of Messina; 150,000 persons killed. (99)




1909 March 8
United States
Tornado
A tornado destroyed 800 buildings and killed 42 persons in the city of Brinkley, Arkansas. (38)


1909 April 6
Arctic
Exploration
R. E. Peary claimed to have reached the North Pole. (17)

1909 April 14
Natal, South Africa
Fall
Hundreds of fish, some alive, fell in a 400 yards by 100 yards area near Newcastle. (18)

1909 April 29
United States
Tornadoes
Tornadoes in Arkansas, Missouri, Tennessee, Illinois, Mississippi and Ohio killed 132 persons. (38)

1909 May 30
United States
Tornado
A tornado 50 yards wide killed 34 persons in Zephyr, Texas. (38)

1909 May 30
United States
Meteorites
Two stones, 1.5 and 1.6 kg, fell at Blanket, Texas. (44)

1909 June 11
France
Earthquake
A magnitude 6.2 earthquake in Provence ruined the towns of Rognes and Verneques. 46 persons were killed.

1909 July 11
United States
‘Heat flash’
Between 1 and 3 a.m. the temperature rose to 136° F. (58° C.) at Cherokee, Oklahoma. (103)

1909 September ll
Heidelburg, Germany
Comet
Dr. Max Wolf detects Halley’s Comet photographically. (113)c

1909 September 20
United States
Hurricane
A hurricane which passed over the Gulf Coast near New Orleans killed 350 persons in Louisiana and Mississippi. (98)

1909 September 25
Java
Aurora
An aurora was reported from Batavia (6° S.) (26)

1909 October 7 - 8
Massachusetts, United States
Anomalous meteorite
A 275 lbs. stone fell at Norwood, breaking every bar of a gate. The stone was a ‘glacial boulder’’ of igneous rock. (22)

1909 October 11
Florida, United States
Hurricane
400 buildings blown down at Key West; Sand Key overwhelmed by sea. (98)

1909 November 6
West Indies
Rain
135 inches of rain fell in 8 days, N.E. Jamaica; 30.5 inches fell on Nov. 6. (7)

1909 November 27
Pacific Ocean
Hurricane
A tropical cyclone (central pressure 945.5 millibars) lasting 6 hours levelled Cocos Island. (59)




1910 January 13
South Africa
Comet
The great Daylight Comet (1910I) was discovered by diamond miners in the Transvaal. (63)

1910 January 22
Italy
Meteorite
An 11.5 kg. stone fell at Vigarano after explosions. (44)

1910 January 28
Scotland
Cold
A minimum temperature of -10° F. (-23.3° C.) at Balmoral. (53)

1910 March 1
United States
Avalanche
A train trapped by snow at Wellington, Washington was swept into a gorge by an avalanche. 96 persons were killed. (31)

1910 May 12
United States
Comet
Halley’s Comet was visible from New York with a tail 35° long. (63, 92))

1910 May 18
Columbia
Optical phenomenon
The Sun near sunset at Victoria was obscured by a ‘dark greyish covering’. Appulse of Earth and Halley’s Comet. (12)

1910 May 18 - 19
United States
The Earth passed through the tail of Halley’s Comet at 10.50 p.m., May 18. The comet passed across the face of the Sun at 7.22 p.m. P.S.T. Nothing was seen. From New York at 2.30 a.m., 19th, a band of light 100° long was seen in the E. (6, 41, 92)

1910 June 27
Germany
Storm
The first commercial airship, the Zeppelin Deutschland, was wrecked by a storm in the Teutoburger Forest. No lives were lost. (104)

1910 July 13 (or 10)
United States
Heat
A shade temperature of 134° F. (57° C.) was recorded at Death Valley, California. (7)

1910 August 12
Natuna Islands
Marine luminescence
Rotating ‘phosphorescent wheels’ were observed near the Natuna Islands. (19)

1910 August 20 - 21
United States
Forest fire
Dry weather and strong winds fanned a fire in Washington, Idaho and Montana which destroyed 3 million acres of forest and killed 85 persons. (43)

1910 September 15
India
Meteorite
A 10 lbs. stone fell at Bareti. (44)

1910 September 29
United States
Luminous night sky
A ‘pale uniform illumination covering the entire heavens’ at Williams Bay, Wisconsin. (19)

1910 October 11 - 23
United States
Hurricane
A violent hurricane described a loop in the Gulf of Mexico. (98)

1910 November 17
Sicily
Rain
18.3 inches of rain fell in 24 hours during a thunderstorm at Riposto. (7)

1910 December 30
Canada
Cold
A temperature of -61.4° C. (-78.5° F.) at Fort Good Hope. (62)